The North Norfolk Coast SPA encompasses much of the northern coastline of Norfolk in eastern England. It is a low-lying barrier coast that extends for 40 km from Holme to Weybourne and includes a great variety of coastal habitats. The main habitats – found along the whole coastline – include extensive intertidal sand- and mud-flats, saltmarshes, shingle and sand dunes, together with areas of freshwater grazing marsh and reedbed, which has developed in front of rising land. The site contains some of the best examples of saltmarsh in Europe. There are extensive deposits of shingle at Blakeney Point, and major sand dunes at Scolt Head. Extensive reedbeds are found at Brancaster, Cley and Titchwell. Maritime pasture is present at Cley and extensive areas of grazing marsh are present all along the coast. The grazing marsh at Holkham has a network of clear water dykes holding a rich diversity of aquatic plant species. The great diversity of high-quality freshwater, intertidal and marine habitats results in very large numbers of waterbirds occurring throughout the year. In summer, the site holds large breeding populations of waders, four species of terns, BitternBotaurus stellaris and wetland raptors such as Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus. In winter, the coast is used by very large numbers of geese, sea-ducks, other ducks and waders. The coast is also of major importance for staging waterbirds in the spring and autumn migration periods. Breeding terns, particularly Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis, and wintering sea-ducks regularly feed outside the SPA in adjacent coastal waters.